Updated 9 Apr 2015: This post has been updated to Swift 1.2
This post is part of a daily series of posts introducing the most exciting new parts of iOS8 for developers – #iOS8DayByDay. To see the posts you’ve missed check out the index page, but have a read through the rest of this post first!
To enjoy each of the 39 posts all in one place, you can now also download the iOS8 Day-by-Day eBook free from our website!
Adaptive UI is probably the most important concept to be introduced in iOS8. It might not seem like it at first, but abstracting the UI away from dependencies on things like device and orientation, allows closer concentration on the design itself, and less on the mechanics of implementation.
The most significant aspect to adaptive UI in iOS8 is adaptive layout – that is layout which can automatically change depending on particular characteristics of the container.
This leads on to having universal storyboards – i.e. a single storyboard which can be used on multiple devices. This might well make storyboards an even more attractive proposition.
Today’s post will give a quick introduction to adaptive layout in iOS8. The accompanying project demonstrates a universal storyboard, with varying layouts. It’s available as part of the github repo at github.com/shinobicontrols/iOS8-day-by-day.
iOS8 introduces the concept of size classes – which are used to categorise the amount of space in a particular dimension. There are 2 possible classes – Regular and Compact. Every view has particular size classes associated with them via a TraitCollection. By default these are defined by the device, but they can be overriden. A view can then customise it’s view according to its size classes. The classes and their use on different devices are outlined below:
|Vertical Size Class||Horizontal Size Class|
The key thing to consider here is that when designing layouts, you don’t have to specify a size class – i.e. you might create a generic layout, and then override a few bits of the layout for the compact vertical size class.
Because of these size classes you are able to use just one universal storyboard for both iPad and iPhone layouts – removing an entire category of errors caused by mistakes in copying between the two storyboards.
Interface builder in Xcode 6 makes this process really rather easy to follow, with the new trait override selector. This can be found in the bar at the bottom of the view and allows you to specify exactly which size class combination your design is currently for.
The process for creating adaptive layouts should be as follows:
- Start by creating the generic layout. This should be the base layout – the one from which the other layouts inherit – they are specializations of this layout – not completely independent.
- Implement your layout specializations in the least constricting override class.
The key to this is thinking less in terms of devices, and more in terms of the layout itself.
When you specify a size class override in IB then you’ll see the bottom bar turn blue:
You are then able to add or remove layout constraints, and even (un)install views to configure a specific layout for this size class.
For example, the following is a screenshot from the accompanying project, in the ‘base values’ mode:
and here for horizontally compact classes:
You can see that the layout has changed, with the picture moving to the left rather than being at the bottom. You should also spot that the sizes of the views on the storyboard don’t relate to the devices. This is to encourage you to move away from thinking of pixel-perfect device appearance, and more towards the concept of generalized layout.
Removing layout constraints for particular size class overrides is known as uninstalling them – and can be done by pressing delete whilst the constraint is selected. The view of constraints in the document navigator shows both the installed and uninstalled constraints:
You can view all the constraints which affect a particular view in the size inspector, with an option to see all constraints, or just those for the current size class:
That’s pretty much all you actually need to know in order to get started with adaptive layout. The key thing to remember is to think in terms of generalized layout, and not specifics for different devices.
This approach can seem a little daunting at first, but Xcode 6 has some helpful features to ease your transition to the new way of thinking. The first is a new assistant view which will show you what your layout looks like on different devices, without having to run the project up on a simulator.
You access the preview by opening an assistant editor, and then selecting the preview from the jump bar:
Once there you can add preview for different devices, and rotate them to your chosen orientation:
The views in the preview will update as you change the layouts in the storyboard.
The other new addition to your toolkit is resizable simulators – these are simply simulators for which you can specify both point sizes and size classes. These are accessible from the list of simulators in the same way as the standard device simulators:
You can then see how your design works at a multitude of different resolutions and size classes. The following show a simulator running at different resolutions, but with both horizontal and vertical size classes set to ‘compact’.
The technologies behind adaptive layout aren’t actually that complicated. It involves you rethinking how your design works. If you haven’t already embraced the world of autolayout, then now is the time to get onboard. The introduction of adaptive layout should be a strong indication that in the future we’ll be designing for more device configurations than the three we’re currently used to. Attempting to scale up the existing device specific approach will not be achievable – therefore implying that autolayout is going to become a requirement.
You should definitely spend some time becoming acquainted with IB in Xcode 6 – it offers a lot of improvements over previous versions.
The project which accompanies today’s post demonstrates setting up a simple adaptive layout project using storyboards – and you can grab it from the ShinobiControls github at github.com/ShinobiControls/iOS8-day-by-day.
Keep the tweets and comments coming!